Reported layer spacings (dsmectic) of six homologues of mesogens exhibiting orthogonal smectic phases (SmE, SmB, SmA phases) are reexamined. The slopes of linear dependences on the chain length (n, the number of carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon chain) are clearly categorized into two groups: 1.9 Angstrom (CH2)-1 and 1.4 Angstrom (CH2)-1. It is clarified that in the former the molecules
take a rod like form (rod-form; category-I), while in the latter the molecules are bent around the connection between core and chain moieties (bent-form; category-II). Averaged relative positions of adjacent molecules within the smectic structures are deduced from the intercept of the linear functions of dsmectic against n. The relation between and the features of molecules elonging to two categories are discussed for molecular design of functional smectic liquid crystals.
(Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 19, 25518-25526 (2017))
Single-crystal structural analyses and heat capacity measurements were performed on two Schiff base liquid crystal compounds, 5CBAA (4-chlorobenzylidene-4'-pentyloxyaniline) and 5ABCA (4-pentyloxybenzylidene-4'-chloroaniline). The alkyloxy-chain of a 5CBAA molecule was conformationally ordered in the crystal at room temperature. That of 5ABCA was partially disordered in room temperature phase but ordered in low-temperature phase at 100 K. The structural phase transition involving the disordering of the conformation was observed at 107 K in the heat capacity of 5ABCA. Both compounds showed two liquid crystalline phases, SmBCr and SmAd. The net entropy change associated with the chain disordering was essentially the same in them despite the difference in the orientation of their central -CH=N- moiety. The layer-spacings of SmBCr and SmAd phases were analyzed for their chain-length dependence in both series of mesogens (nCBAA and nABCA), as well as in case of nBBAA (4-bromobenzylidene-4'-alkyloxyaniline). The results reveal that these smectic structures are composed of alternately stacked core- and chain-layers with an antiparallel arrangement of cores and a bent-form of molecules.
(Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 19, 19431-19441 (2017))
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